In a nutshell, process is everything from the conceptual phase to the implementation phase. A workflow could look something like this (although it varies project to project):
Understanding: To listen. To gather as much information, in order to understand what needs to be done.
Researching: Idea phase, research, competitive analysis
Planning: Information architecture, page flow (ux), wireframes and prototypes.
Design: Prototypes are visually designed with graphics and are ready for review and approval. User acceptance testing is performed. Revisions are completed at this phase as per previously agreed upon revision policy.
Development: The site is built as per web standards and requirements.
Pre-Launch: Functionality tests, check for broken links, images, etc.
Launch Site: The site is now accessible to the public.
Post-launch: Website documentation and site hand off.